Certificate of Energy Efficiency


1) Procedure

The energy survey needed to produce an EPC is performed by an assessor who visits the property, examines key items such as loft insulation, domestic boiler, hot water tank, radiators, windows for double glazing, and so on. He or she then inputs the observations into a software program  which performs the calculation of energy efficiency. The program gives a single number for the rating of energy efficiency, and a recommended value of the potential for improvement. There are similar figures for environmental impact. A table of estimated energy bills per annum (and the potential for improvement) is also presented, but without any reference to householder bills. The householder will have to pay for the survey. The exercise is entirely non-invasive, so assessors make assumptions on the insulation properties of various elements of the property based on age and construction type. The assessor has the ability to over-ride these assumptions if visual or written evidence is provided to support the presence of insulation which may have been subsequently installed.


The A to G Scale

Energy Performance Certificates present the energy efficiency of dwellings on a scale of A to G. The most efficient homes – which should have the lowest fuel bills – are in band A. The certificate uses the same scale to define the impact a home has on the environment. Better-rated homes should have less impact through carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.



The certificate includes recommendations on ways to improve the home’s energy efficiency to save money. The accuracy of the recommendations will depend on the inspection standards applied by the inspector, which may be variable. The EU directive requires the EPC recommendations to be cost effective in improving the energy efficiency of the home, but in addition to presenting the most cost effective options, more expensive options which are less cost effective are also presented. To distinguish them from the more cost effective measures, these are shown in a section described as ‘further measures’. Because the EPC is designed to be produced at change of occupancy, it must be relevant to any occupier and it therefore must make no allowance for the particular preferences of the current occupier.


2) When the EPC is needed

The energy survey in order to produce an EPC is compulsory for all properties with a floor area greater than 50m2    that contain fixed services (houses, offices, retail premises and public sector buildings, commercial buildings, educational or health buildings, etc) whenever the building is sold, built or rented.



3) Property Details

The certificate contains the following property details:


  • List of householder’s info (name, address, etc)
  • Property type (for example detached house)
  • Property address
  • Date of inspection
  • Total floor area
  • Date of construction
  • Cause of inspection (sale, rent, etc)
  • Copy of floor plan (not necessary)

In case it is built after 1983:

  • Copy of building permission
  • Insulation report


In case there are no architectural drawings, the inspector has to measure and make a plan of the property.